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White-Tailed Deer

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The White-Tailed Deer is also known as the Virginia Deer. This deer is able to adapt to their surrounding, making them capable of living all across North America.
  White-Tailed Deer
Description Distribution Tracking Pictures


Latin Name: Odocoileus virginianus Conservation Status: Lower Risk
Distribution: Canada and USA (East of the Rocky Mountains), Mexico, Central America Average Weight: Male, 275 lbs - Female, 110 lbs

The White-Tailed Deer is the state animal of seven States, and one Province. They can be spotted by their white tail, and reddish-brown coat. In the colder months, their coat turns a brownish-grey. Males will also shed their antlers before the winter begins. You can usually find the antlers on the forest floor once in a while.



The numbers of White-Tailed Deer across North America was relatively low in the 1930's. At this time, no one was thinking about conservation programs, and hunting was done almost year round. These practices had the total number of White-Tailed Deer in North America around 300,000. Programs were initiated to conserve the White-Tailed Deer population, which saw the population begin to increase. This, couple with seasonal hunting regulations, saw the White-Tailed Deer population grow to the current estimated population level of 30,000,000.

The White-Tailed Deer has been successfully introduced in Finland and the surrounding Scandinavian countries.

White-Tailed Deer can also be found as far south as Southern Mexico and Central America.



Like most animals, when deer travel through the forest, they leave clues behind. When on a nature hike through an area populated by deer, look for these signs. The deer's hoof leaves heart-shaped tracks in the ground. They have 2 'toenails', and 2 smaller impressions behind.

Some trees may have spots where the bark was removed. This is caused by bucks rubbing their antlers on the tree. They do this to mark their territory, and is conveniently called a 'buck rub.'

Look for areas of shrub or bush that has been flattened in the middle. 'Deer beds' are the spot on the ground where deer lie down to rest. The surrounding shrubbery is used to protect them from the weather, and to add camouflage.


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